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Phonics resources

Phonics teaches children to read by matching sounds (phonemes) to letters (graphemes) or groups of letters. On this webpage, you will find useful videos and information about phonics that can be used to help your child read. . 


Here are some of the words and phrases you may hear when reading about phonics.  


Phoneme- the individual unit of sound in a word. The English language contains 44 different sounds.


Grapheme- the letter or group of letters that visually represents the phoneme (sound).


Special Friends is a term we use in Read Write Inc and it refers to digraphs- 2 letters which represent 1 sound, for example: ck, ch, sh, th, ng


We also call trigraphs special friends - 3 letters representing 1 sound, for example: ear, air, ure, igh


Fred Talk is a term for blending: merging the individual sounds (phonemes) to say a word. For example: c-a-t, cat or th-i-n, thin.


Fred Fingers is a term for segmenting- the skill of recognising the individual sounds (phonemes) needed to spell and write a word.


Vowel- short vowel sounds: a, e, i, o, u long vowel sounds: ai, ee, igh, ow, oo


Vowels- a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e e.g. name, tim(also called split digraphs)


Green Words- words which we can use our Fred Tal, blending skills, to read.


Red words- these are words which don’t follow phonic rules. We call these words Red Words  e.g. said, she.